Bladder is the organ that stores urine and is connected to the kidneys via ureter. The kidneys filter the blood and excrete the urine in the bladder. The bladder is connected to the urethra from where the urine passes. Bladder tumor, one of the commonest urological cancers ,called as transitional cell carcinoma. TURBT is the best diagnostic treatment of bladder cancer which offers faster recovery and better patient outcome. Bladder cancer has certain risk factors such as occupational Hazard (exposure to aromatic mines, dyes, metals, chemicals, etc), smoking etc.
Symptoms of Bladder Cancer
- Blood in Urine
- Urinary Urgency Incontinence (frequent urge to urinate)
- Painful urination
- Problem in emptying the bladder
How the Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer is made?
- CT scan
Treatment Options for Bladder Cancer – TURBT
- Endoscopic resection of tumor or TURBT – Transurethral Resection of Bladder is also known as TURBT, first and foremost treatment. It can be used to diagnose the nature of the tumor as well. In the TURBT procedure, an endoscope is passed in the bladder and the tumor is resected and taken out. This tumor is then sent to the lab to find out the nature of tumor and the stage of cancer. Further treatment depends upon the stage of the tumor and cancer.
- Radical cystectomy – If the tumor is in the advanced stage and has spread to the whole bladder, then the whole bladder is removed. The seminal vesicles and prostate are also removed along with the bladder depending upon the spread of the cancer. After the removal of bladder there are two options in the surgery
- Creation of Neobladder – In this technique, a part of the small intestine is used as a new bladder. The ureters are connected to this new bladder to give the patient a normal functioning bladder to store urine and void it when required.
- Creation of Ileal conduit – In this technique, the ureters are implanted in a part of the intestine. This part is then attached to the abdomen of the patient and an outlet is created. To this part, a urine bag is attached which can be emptied when required. The patient has to depend on the urine bag as a bladder.
The preferred method is the creation of neobladder as it gives the patient a better quality of life. It gives the patient almost normal functions of bladder.
- Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy – These are the method of choice when the patient can not undergo surgery. These are also used in conjunction with the surgery in case of very aggressive tumors. Intravesical chemotherapy is given in the form of mitomycin C.
- Immunotherapy – The immune system of the patient is boosted with the help of medications. This helps the patient in fighting with the cancer more effectively and efficiently. Also known as biological therapy. In this treatment, intravesical immunotherapy is given in the form of BCG.
To ask about bladder cancer treatment, TURBT or other details, Book an appointment with Dr. Ashish Saini here.